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On Tuesday, November 28, the Mayoral Advisory Commission on Burghal Art, Monuments, and Markers captivated its final accessible audition for New Yorkers to articulation their action to and abutment for the abatement or reframing of accessible monuments about the city. Based on comments at the bristles accessible hearings and added feedback, the Commission is accepted to accomplish its recommendations to Mayor Bill de Blasio about how best to accord with advancing monuments by the end of the year.

File:Museum of Arts and Design crop
File:Museum of Arts and Design crop | 2 columbus circle nyc

Today, added than 120 arresting advisers and artists accept active and beatific a letter to the Commission — and aggregate it abandoned with Hyperallergic — calling for the abatement of three monuments and two acclaimed markers. The signatories accommodate such acclaimed art historians as Ariella Azoulay, Claire Bishop, Lucy Lippard, Fred Moten, Deborah Willis, Gregory Sholette, and Hal Foster, and artists, including Alicia Grullon, Jackson Polys, and Martha Rosler.

“These monuments are an abuse in a burghal whose adopted admiral deliver altruism and equity,” the letter, which is included in abounding below, reads in part. “We animate the Commission to appropriate this befalling to accomplish a brave, akin monumental, action that will bell for ancestors to come, rather than a politically expedient fix that will be calmly captivated — and bound abandoned — by the cachet quo.”

The three monuments cited in the letter are the above ones that were best frequently discussed in the Commission’s accessible hearings: the Christopher Columbus cairn in Columbus Circle; the equestrian bronze of Theodore Roosevelt alfresco the American Building of Natural History; and the cairn to J. Marion Sims in Central Park. The two acclaimed markers, commemorating associates of the government of Vichy France accepted to accept been Nazi collaborators and bedevilled of crime afterwards World War II, Philippe Pétain and Pierre Laval, are amid in the alleged “Canyon of Heroes” on Broadway in the Financial District.

“[F]or all the aggression of accumulated alms and alleged clandestine accessible ‘partnerships,’ museums and accessible spaces are still advised society’s foremost accessible fora,” Carin Kuoni, the Director/Curator of the Vera Account Centermost for Art and Politics at the New Academy and one of the letter’s signatories, told Hyperallergic. “As such, they charge abide pertinent to abreast society, acknowledging to the demands, hopes, and visions of ‘the public’ — citizens, visitors, affective populations alike. These institutions cannot assert on the assignment to apotheosize and bottle the ethical ethics of periods past, if they appetite to be advancing spaces of encounters for the bodies of our time.”

While abounding attendees at aftermost month’s hearings appropriate abacus contextualizing plaques alongside arguable monuments, the letter’s signatories are determined that they be removed.

“Any applique or signage that addresses the complicated bequest while abrogation these statues in their accepted position, serves to justify, to announce that these ambiguous glorifications — admitting any complicating by advertence their genocidal roots — deserve to endure,” artisan Jackson Polys, one of the signatories, told Hyperallergic. “These monuments, decidedly the Bronze to Roosevelt, anon acquaint a bulletin of ahead and inferiority forth racialized lines. The crisis is that this bulletin is normalized daily, not abandoned by adults but by added than 300,000 academy accouchement per year, breeding adverse divisions. How far will this extend to our approaching generations?”

Edward Durell Stone’s 2 Columbus Circle becomes the Museum of Arts .. | 2 columbus circle nyc

Indeed, the letter concludes by suggesting to the Commission accessible means of recontextualizing the statues and markers aural actual institutions that would action a beneath edifying, added educational framework.

“They should be placed in exhibits that beforehand visitors through this history so that at the moment of against the statue, the (white) eyewitness already has the ability they charge to see the bronze as racist,” Nick Mirzoeff, addition attestant and a assistant of beheld ability at New York University, told Hyperallergic. “I don’t anticipate that’s anytime been a botheration for Indigenous and African American viewers. In Germany, Nazi-era carve cannot be apparent except in such organized exhibition space.”

The abounding argument of the group’s letter is below. Anyone can add their name to the account of signatories via this online adaptation of the letter.

* * *

To the Mayor’s Commission on Monuments:

As advisers of American art, cultural history and amusing analysis, we are autograph to appetite that the Commission acclaim the abatement of several monuments from accessible actualization in New York City. They accept continued been accent as altar of accepted acerbity amid communities of blush and anti-racist scholars, artists, and movements. It is appropriately no abruptness that these monuments accept risen to the top of the account of the “symbols of hate,” to adduce Mayor de Blasio, singled out during the Commission’s contempo accessible hearings. For too long, they accept generated abuse and breach as expressions of white supremacy. These monuments are an abuse in a burghal whose adopted admiral deliver altruism and equity.

Edward Durell Stone’s 2 Columbus Circle becomes the Museum of Arts .. | 2 columbus circle nyc

In this letter, we add our articulation to the boundless affect calling for their removal. We accept this alarm for abatement as an acclaimed moral befalling for creatively reckoning with the accomplished and aperture amplitude for a added aloof future. We animate the Commission to appropriate this befalling to accomplish a brave, akin monumental, action that will bell for ancestors to come, rather than a politically expedient fix that will be calmly absorbed– and bound forgotten– by the cachet quo.

The monuments in catechism are as follows:

1. The Dr. J. Marion Sims bronze in Central Park, commemorating a doctor who performed surgical abstracts on apprenticed African American women, including children, after anesthesia or consent. Momentum for its abatement has spurred a appreciably ample affiliation in abutment of the abiding appeal from Black and Latinx Harlemites that this abuse be removed.

2. Acclaimed markers of Vichy France’s Nazi collaborators, Philippe Pétain and Pierre Laval, are amid in the Canyon of Heroes. Lest anyone charge reminding, Vichy organized its own displacement to Auschwitz of over 70,000 Jewish French citizens.

3. The Equestrian Cairn to Theodore Roosevelt in advanced of the American Building of Natural History. It depicts Roosevelt on horseback, accompanied by half-naked African and American Indian abstracts on foot, accustomed his rifles.

4. The Christopher Columbus bronze overlooking Manhattan’s Columbus Circle.

The Museum of Arts and Design: 2 Columbus Circle, New York, 10023 | 2 columbus circle nyc
The Museum of Arts and Design: 2 Columbus Circle, New York, 10023 | 2 columbus circle nyc | 2 columbus circle nyc

We accept the case for removing the aboriginal two is abundantly above debate. There are no defenders of these monuments, and they accept no abode on Burghal property.

The third cairn is not artlessly a free-standing bronze of the 26th President, but rather a alignment of figures: Roosevelt on horseback, belted by accessory abstracts on foot, one Black (African by appearance) and the added Indigenous (in a academic Native American casting but with an abnormally inappropriate mix of chaplet and clothing). As an imperialist, and aboveboard apostle of eugenics, Roosevelt’s angle on ancestral bureaucracy are acclaimed to historians. The Building (center of the American ancestry movement in the aboriginal years of the twentieth century) now pays accolade to his conservationist efforts, after acknowledging the articulation to those antipathetic beliefs. The adherence of the Museum’s canonizing in 1936 and of the abutting equestrian cairn in 1939 was acclaimed by its admiral as a cleanup of the theories of Henry Fairfield Osborn, who had presided over the institution’s aboriginal beforehand at the above time as he championed ancestry aural and without. Akin accidental visitors who may not acquire this ability attention the cairn as a abrupt apotheosis of white supremacy, and it is an chief antecedent of aching to Black and Indigenous bodies amid them. The abatement of this cairn will be a adventurous account on account of all New Yorkers that this acid moment in American history no best deserves to be commemorated. Indeed, this accomplished October, added than one thousand bodies aggregate at the Building at the allurement of groups including Black Youth Project 100, Decolonize This Place, and NYC Stands With Standing Rock to appeal the abatement of the statue.

By far the best arguable of the monuments is that to Christopher Columbus, who served the Spanish crown, and batten and wrote abandoned in Catalan. Because he was built-in in Genoa in 1451–a burghal that did not become “Italy” until the affinity of the country in 1861–he was adopted as a affectionate attribute by Italian immigrants in the nineteenth century. But the accessible affirmation of “ownership” of Columbus by Italian-Americans cannot be accustomed to override his key role in the actual genocide of Indigenous peoples of the Americas. By 1600, at atomic 50 actor Indigenous bodies died in this hemisphere as a aftereffect of the Columbian appointment with Europeans, whether from war, ache or enslavement. It takes abandoned a little compassionate to see why their birth do not attention annihilation associated with 1492 as an article of veneration. Abounding U.S. cities accept called to do what is aloof and renamed Columbus Day as Indigenous Peoples’ Day. There is now a civic movement to abolish statues of Columbus alongside to the movement to abolish Confederate monuments in the South. The contempo contest in Charlottesville prompted Mayor de Blasio to authorize the Commission, and so it is bounden aloft us to attending to the archetype of that burghal in angrily opting to abolish the behind monuments.

In calling aloft the Commission to acclaim the abatement of the above monuments, we additionally endorse any advanced post-removal action to beforehand compassionate of these histories and accomplish aesthetic use of the abandoned burghal property. These statues could be placed in committed building spaces or canonizing gardens, as has happened in Germany, India, South Africa and beyond Eastern Europe. The Roosevelt cairn by James Earle Fraser could be profitably displayed alongside Fraser’s The End of the Trail in the Metropolitan Museum, for example, so that admirers could analyze how chase and ancestry were visualized in the period. The abandoned sites could be acclimated as the accountable for aesthetic competitions, as with London’s Fourth Plinth in Trafalgar Square. In short, we see the aftereffect of the Commission not as antibacterial heritage, let abandoned the declared abandoning of history, but as the alpha of an agitative new set of possibilities for accessible art and museums in New York City, one assuredly adherent to an across-the-board and reparative eyes of the difficult histories of face colonialism and the Indigenous peoples of this land.


Rachel Adams (Columbia University )Awam Ampka (NYU)Jane Anderson (NYU)Tom Angotti (Hunter College/CUNY Graduate Center)Ariella Azoulay (Brown University)Gianpaolo Baiocchi (NYU)Kadambari Baxi (Barnard College)Herman Bennett (CUNY Graduate Center)Maurice Berger (University of Maryland, Baltimore County)Claire Bishop (CUNY Graduate Center)Kirsten Pai Buick (University of New Mexico)Eduardo Cadava (Princeton University)Jordan Camp (Barnard College)Hazel Carby (Yale University)Paula Chakravartty (NYU)Kandice Chu (CUNY Graduate Center)Simon Critchley (New School)Arlene Davila (NYU)Ashley Dawson (CUNY Graduate Center)Patrick Deer (NYU)TJ Demos (UC Santa Cruz)Rosalyn Deutsche (Barnard College)Jaskiran Dhillon (New School)Natasha Dhillon (MTL)Ana Dopico (NYU)Lisa Duggan (NYU)Johanna Fernandez (Baruch College)Ada Ferrer (NYU)Michelle Fine (CUNY Graduate Center)Nicole Fleetwood (Rutgers University, New Brunswick)Hal Foster (Princeton University)Julia Foulkes (New School)Faye Ginsburg (NYU)Kyle Goen (MTL )Jennifer Gonzalez (UC Santa Cruz)Jeff Goodwin (NYU)Gayatri Gopinath (NYU)Linda Gordon (NYU)Sandy Grande (Connecticut College)Greg Grandin (NYU)Margaret Gray (Adelphi University)Steven Gregory (Columbia University)Alicia Grullon (NYU)Macarena Gómez-Barris (Pratt Institute)David Harvey (CUNY Graduate Center)Christina Heatherton (Barnard College)Rachel Heiman (New School)Amin Husain (MTL )Matthew Jacobson (Yale University)Karl Jacoby (Columbia University)Kimberley Johnson (NYU)Walter Johnson (Harvard University)David Joselit (CUNY Graduate Center)May Joseph (Pratt Institute)Rebecca Karl (NYU)Cindi Katz (CUNY Graduate Center)J. Kehaulani Kauanui (Wesleyan University)Monica Kim (NYU)Eric Klinenberg (NYU)Arun Kundnani (NYU)Carin Kuoni (New School)Lucy Lippard (independent scholar)Julie Livingston (NYU)Eric Lott (CUNY Graduate Center)Emily Martin (NYU)Reinhold Martin (Columbia University)Anna McCarthy (NYU)Anne McClintock (Princeton University)Yates McKee (Borough of Manhattan Community College)Kim Miller (Wheaton College)Mark Crispin Miller (NYU)Nicholas Mirzoeff (NYU)Timothy Mitchell (Columbia University)WJT Mitchell (University of Chicago)Jennifer Morgan (NYU)Fred Moten (NYU)Fred Myers (NYU)Alondra Nelson (Columbia University)Mae Ngai (Columbia University)Rob Nixon (Princeton University)Mary Nolan (NYU)Gary Okihiro (Columbia University)Liza Oliver (Wellesley College)Bertell Ollman (NYU)Kim Phillips-Fein (NYU)Dana Polan (NYU)Jackson Polys (Columbia University)Michael Ralph (NYU)Sujani Reddy (SUNY-Old Westbury)Conor Tomás Reed (CUNY Graduate Center)Robert F. Reid-Pharr (CUNY Graduate Center)Bruce Robbins (Columbia University)Miguel Robles-Duran (New School)Shellyne Rodriguez (SVA)Martha Rosler (Independent Artist)Andrew Ross (NYU)Marz Saffore (MTL )Maria Saldaña (NYU)Sukhdev Sandhu (NYU)Dean Saranillio (NYU)Sarah Schulman (College of Staten Island, CUNY)Richard Sennett (London Academy of Economics)Greg Sholette (Queens College)Ira Shor (CUNY Graduate Center)Nikhil Singh (NYU)Anne Spice (CUNY Graduate Center)Elsa Stamatopoulou (Columbia University)Marita Sturken (NYU)Celina Su (Brooklyn College/CUNY Graduate Center)Thomas Sugrue (NYU)Neferti Tadiar (Columbia University)Mick Taussig (Columbia University)Diana Taylor (NYU)Saadia Toor (College of Staten Island, CUNY)Thuy Linh Tu (NYU)Manu Vimalassery (Barnard College)McKenzie Wark (New School)Robert Warrior (University of Kansas)Andrew Weiner (NYU)Amy Weng (MTL )Deborah Willis (NYU)Gwendolyn Wright (Columbia University)Or Zublasky (New School)

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